| Coat of arms of Satu MareSzatmárnémeti
Coat of arms
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center;">
<tr class="mergedbottomrow"> <th colspan="2" style="text-align: center; font-size: smaller; padding-bottom: 0.7em;">Coordinates: </th>
<tr class="mergedtoprow"> <th>Country
<th class="adr">Flag of Romania Romania
</tr><tr class="mergedrow"> <th>County
<th class="adr">Satu Mare County
</tr><tr class="mergedrow"> <th>Status <th>County capital </tr>
<tr class="mergedtoprow"> <td colspan="2">Government </td> </tr> <tr class="mergedrow"> <th> - Mayor <td>Iuliu Ilyés (Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania)</td> </tr> <tr class="mergedtoprow"> <td colspan="2">Area </td> </tr> <tr class="mergedrow"> <th> - Total </th> <td>150,3 km² (58 sq mi)</td> </tr></td> </tr>
<tr class="mergedtoprow"> <td colspan="2">Population </td> </tr> <tr class="mergedrow"> <th> - Total</th> <td>160.421</td> </tr><tr class="mergedrow"> <th> - Density</th> <td>766/km² (1.983,9/sq mi)</td> </tr> <tr class="mergedtoprow"> <th>Time zone</th> <td>EET (UTC+2) </tr> <tr class="mergedbottomrow"> <th style="white-space: nowrap;"> - Summer (DST)</th> <td>EEST (UTC+3)</td> </tr>
Satu Mare (pronunciation in Romanian: /'sa.tu 'ma.re/; Hungarian: Szatmárnémeti; German: Sathmar; Yiddish: סאטמאר (Satmar)) is a city with a population of 160,421 and the capital of Satu Mare County, Romania.
Satu Mare has a total population of 160,421; the ethnic breakdown is as follows:
and 480 others.
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- The area of Satu Mare has been inhabited since the stone age. The archeological discoveries made in Ţara Oaşului, Ardud, Medieşu Aurit, Homorod and other places have unearthed abundant evidence regarding the Stone Age and Bronze Age settlements in this area.
- A fortress by the name of Zotmar (Castrum Zotmar) was mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum as being in the lands ruled by Menumorut in the early 10th century. According to the chronicle, the fortress was taken by the Magyars after three days of fighting. In 1006 Germans were settled around the fortress by the Hungarian queen Gizella. Later, more Germans settled in the town of Mintin, across the Someş river.
- After 1543 the fortress, then owned by the Báthory family, was reinforced and a moat was built around it. The fortress was under siege by the Ottomans in 1562 and later destroyed by the Habsburg Monarchy (Austrian Habsburgs). The Austrian Lazar Schwendi, using the latest Italian fortification techniques, rebuilt the fortress.
- In 1703 the whole city burned down.
- In 1721, Satu Mare, united with Mintiu/Mintin, became a "royal free city" and prospered as an important center of trade and craftsmanship.
- In the 18th century much of the city was rebuilt and among the landmarks from that time are the old City Hall, the inn and several churches.
- At the end of the 1760s the population rose to about 5,000 people.
- In 1902, the first Hasidic Rabbi to settle in Satu Mare, Rabbi Yisachar Bertchi Leifer, the son of the famous Rabbi Mordechai Leifer of Nadvorna, moved from Selish to Satu Mare, where he gathered a large following until his passing in 1906. He was buried in the local Jewish Cemetery, and his grave is still visited by hundreds of Hasidim each year.
- According to the census of 1910, Satu Mare had a population of 45,000, out of which 94.5% were Hungarians (including the Hungarian-speaking Jews).
- On 2 March 1919, Hungarian Prime minister Mihály Károlyi delivered a historic speech in Satu Mare in front of the Székely Division: "we'll fight for our country". It came as an answer to the dispute over the Austro-Hungarian legacy at the end of World War I.
- On 20 March 1919 a representative of the Allies in Budapest handed Károlyi a Note ordering him to evacuate a further area of central Hungary for the benefit of the Romanians. The new cease-fire line was: Satu Mare - Carei - Oradea - Salonta - Arad. Count Károlyi's government resigned, and Bolsheviks led by Béla Kun replaced his government.
- On 16 April 1919 the Romanian Army started an attack across the cease-fire line against the Hungarian Soviet Republic, and marched on Satu Mare on 19 April.
- In 1920 Satu Mare became part of Romania. In 1930 it was the 15th largest city of Romania, with a population of 51,495. (Craiova (12): 63,215, Braşov: (13) 59,232, Constanţa (14): 59,164).
- More than half of those who fled Poland after the Nazi German September invasion of 1939 went to Romania and Hungary, passing through Satu Mare.
- As a consequence of the Second Vienna Award, on 30 August 1940, the city was given to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania.
- During World War II, Satu Mare and the surrounding areas were the stage of many deportations carried out by the Hungarian government, and antisemitic violence was a common reality in the life of Satu Mare while the city was under Hungarian occupation. In memory of the victims of the crimes committed by the Hungarians and German Nazis in the Satu Mare area, a monument has been raised in front of the Satu Mare Synagogue.
- Despite the many casualties and discriminatory measures, however, the bulk of the Jews of Northern Transylvania, like those of Hungary as a whole, lived in relative physical safety, convinced that they would continue to enjoy the protection of the conservative-aristocratic government. This conviction was shattered almost immediately after the German occupation of Hungary on March 19, 1944. During the war at least 18,000 Jews from the Satu Mare area were deported and murdered in concentration and extermination camps as part of the Holocaust.
- Some details relating to the ghettoization of the Jews in Northern Transylvania were discussed and finalized at two conferences chaired by László Endre (undersecretary of State in the Ministry of the Interior). These were attended by the top Hungarian officials in charge of the Final Solution and representatives of the various counties and municipalities, including the county prefects and/or deputy prefects, mayors, and the police and gendarmerie commanders of the affected counties. The first conference was held in Satu Mare on April 6, 1944, and was devoted to the "de-Jewification" operations in the counties of the Hungarian Gendarmerie (Csendőrség) District IX, namely Bistriţa-Năsăud, Bihor, Cluj, Satu Mare, Sălaj, and Someş.
- The area was recovered by Romanian troops and the Soviet Red Army on 25 October 1944 after the intense battle of Carei.
- By 1950 Satu Mare once again had roughly the same population as in 1930. It took almost three decades for Satu Mare to become a prosperous city once again. In the 1970s the city was subject to an extensive process of modernization undertaken by the Romanian Communist government of that time after the floods that took place on 14 May 1970. The most visible achievement of the reconstruction process was the impressive building of a city hall that features a unique architecture–the symbol of the city. The 1977 census was the first to show Hungarians in a minority. The collapse of Communism placed Satu Mare into a long period of stagnation during the 1990s when it lost around 20,000 inhabitants due to the closing down of many industrial plants.
- Nowadays Satu Mare is a dynamic city with an industry that is entering the global economy. A considerable number of the inhabitants are active as guest workers, mostly in Western Europe, while their families remain based in Satu Mare.
There are two main football clubs in Satu Mare: Olimpia and Someşul both playing in the romanian Liga III. There are two football stadiums in Satu Mare: the Olimpia Stadium with 20.000 seats and Someşul Stadium with 3.000 seats.
The most important companies that have established production facilities in Satu Mare are Electrolux, Dräxlmaier Group, Continental, Woco Group, Schlemmer, Casco, Phoenix AG, Hay Automobiltechnik and Zollner Elektronik in the industrial sector, Friesland in the food sector, Miro Radici in the textile sector and Saint-Gobain and Boissigny in the wood industry.
Satu Mare's retail sector is very developed; a number of international companies such as Profi, Real, Kaufland, Billa and Interex have supermarkets or hypermarkets in the city. There is also a DIY store, a Praktiker, and two malls. The smaller one, Plaza Europa, has a surface area of about 6000 m²; the larger one, Someşul, is some 12,000 m² in area.
Satu Mare is served by the Satu Mare International Airport located 5 km south of the city.
Major tourists attractions are:
- Turnul pompierilor (Fireman's Tower) a 45 m tall tower;
- the Roman-Catholic Cathedral;
- the Lupa Capitolina statue;
- Biserica cu lanturi (the Chain Church);
- Palatul administrativ Satu Mare a 97 m tall building;
- the Dacia Hotel.
There are several hotels in the city, including one 4 star hotel Villa Bodi, eleven 3 star hotels Astoria, Leon, Villa Lux, Dacia, Aurora, Dana I, Dana II, Select, Rania, Melody, Belvedere and one 2 star hotel: Sport.
- Flag of Hungary Nyíregyháza
- Flag of Poland Rzeszów
- Flag of Austria Schwaz
- Flag of Germany Wolfenbuttel
- Flag of the Netherlands Zutphen
Famous people from Satu MareEdit
- Flag of Canada Ernest Klein
- Flag of Hungary András Domahidy
- Flag of Hungary Antal Bánhidi
- Flag of Hungary Gábor Darvas
- Flag of Hungary Horváth Zoltán
- Flag of Israel Aaron Teitelbaum
- Flag of Israel Moshe Dovid Winternitz
- Flag of Romania Daniel Prodan
- Flag of Romania Daniel David
- Flag of Romania Ioan Mircea Paşcu
- Flag of Romania Ovidiu Ioan Silaghi
- Flag of the United States Ernie Grunfeld
Satu Mare County
|Municipalities||Satu Mare (county seat) · Carei||Coat of Arms of Satu Mare County|
|Towns||Ardud · Negreşti-Oaş · Tăşnad · Livada|
|Communes||Acâş · Andrid · Apa · Bătarci · Beltiug · Berveni · Bixad · Bârsău · Bogdand · Botiz · Călineşti-Oaş · Cămărzana · Cămin · Căpleni · Căuaş · Cehal · Certeze · Craidorolţ · Crucişor · Culciu · Doba · Dorolţ · Foieni · Gherţa Mică · Halmeu · Hodod · Homoroade · Lazuri · · Medieşu Aurit · Micula · Moftin · Odoreu · Oraşu Nou · Păuleşti · Petreşti · Pir · Pişcolt · Pomi · Porumbeşti · Racşa · Sanislău · Santău · Săcăşeni · Săuca · Socond · Supur · Tarna Mare · Terebeşti · Tiream · Târşolţ · Turţ · Turulung · Urziceni · Valea Vinului · Vetiş · Viile Satu Mare · Vama|
County seats of Romania (alphabetical order by county)
Alba Iulia • Arad • Piteşti • Bacău • Oradea • Bistriţa • Botoşani • Braşov • Brăila • Buzău • Reşiţa • Călăraşi • Cluj-Napoca • Constanţa • Sfântu Gheorghe • Târgovişte • Craiova • Galaţi • Giurgiu • Târgu Jiu • Miercurea Ciuc • Deva • Slobozia • Iaşi • Buftea • Baia Mare • Drobeta-Turnu Severin • Târgu Mureş • Piatra Neamţ • Slatina • Ploieşti • Satu Mare • Zalău • Sibiu • Suceava • Alexandria • Timişoara • Tulcea • Vaslui • Râmnicu Vâlcea • Focşani
cs:Satu Mare da:Satu Mare de:Satu Mare et:Satu Mare eo:Satu Mare fr:Satu Mare id:Satu-Mare it:Satu Mare he:סאטו מארה hu:Szatmárnémeti nl:Satu Mare pl:Satu Mare ro:Satu Mare ru:Сату-Маре fi:Satu-Mare tg:Сату-Маре uk:Сату-Маре yi:סאטמאר (שטאט)